About the SIOP® Model: Explore SIOP® Components and Research

In an age of high accountability, Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol, or SIOP®, offers an empirically validated approach to teaching that helps prepare all students, especially English learners, for college and careers. As a framework for organizing instruction, the SIOP® Model supports teachers in planning and delivering high-quality instruction for all students.

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SIOP® Model

SIOP® Model Components: 8 Is Great!

There are eight interrelated components to the SIOP® Model. These components provide research-based instructional strategies that help support the academic and linguistic needs of students.



Empirically Validated Instructional Strategies

The SIOP® Model helps optimize language learning. Research shows the SIOP® Model helps educators with all students, most notably English language learners. When implemented to a high degree, SIOP® will improve the performance of your students with high language demands.

  • Increases student achievement
  • Improves academic content skills and language skills
  • Delivers results aligned to district objectives
  • Prepares students to become college and career ready

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Need a Proven Solution for English Learners?

The SIOP® Model establishes an effective instructional approach to support content and language objectives. Research studies on SIOP®  prove its effectiveness in real-world classroom settings at all grade levels, from elementary through high school. Teachers trained in using the SIOP®  model have been shown to significantly improve scores on language tests versus teachers who had no training. Watch a video or browse through the research to see how the SIOP®  Model can help your teachers and students.

Learn how the SIOP® Model was developed and validated. Watch Video




Short, D., C. Fidelman, and M. Louguit. Developing Academic Language in English Language Learners Through Sheltered Instruction. Center for Applied Linguistics: Washington, DC, United States. TESOL QUARTERLY (June 2012): Vol. 46, No. 2.

Echevarria, J., C. Richards-Tutor, R. Canges and D. Francis. Using the SIOP Model to promote the acquisition of language and science concepts with English learners. Bilingual Research Journal (2011): 34 (3), 334-351.

Echevarria, J., C. Richards-Tutor, V. Chinn, and P. Ratleff. Did they get it? The role of fidelity in teaching English learners. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy (2011):  54 (6) 425-434.

Echevarria , J. and D. Short. Programs and practices for effective sheltered content instruction. In California Department of Education (Ed.). Improving education for English learners: Research-based approaches (2010): 250-321. Sacramento, CA: CDE Press. Download

Echevarría, J., and D. Short. The SIOP® Model: A professional development framework for comprehensive schoolwide intervention. Washington, DC: Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners  (2011). Download

Echevarria, J., D. Short, and K. Powers. School reform and standards-based education: An instructional model for English language learners. Journal of Educational Research (2006): 99(4), 195-210.

Echevarria, J., D. Short, C. Richards-Tutor, and J. Himmel, J. (in press). Using the SIOP Model as a professional development framework for comprehensive schoolwide intervention. In J. Echevarria, S. Vaughn, & D. Francis (Eds.), English learners in content area classes: Teaching for achievement in the middle grades. Boston: Pearson.

Echevarria, J., and ME. Vogt. Using the SIOP Model to improve literacy for English learners. New England Reading Association Journal (2010): 46 (1), 8-15.

Guarino, A.J., J. Echevarria, D. Short, J.E. Schick, S. Forbes, and R. Rueda. The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol. Journal of Research in Education (2001): 11(1), 138–140.

Himmel, J., D.J. Short, C, Richards, and J. Echevarria, J. Using the SIOP Model to improve middle school science instruction. Washington, DC: Center for Research on the Educational Achievement and Teaching of English Language Learners (2001). Download

McIntyre, E., D. Kyle, C. Chen, M. Muñoz, and S. Beldon. Teacher learning and ELL reading achievement in sheltered instruction classrooms: Linking professional development to student development. Literacy Research and Instruction (2010): 49(4), 334-351.

Short, D., N. Cloud, P. Morris, and J. Motta. Cross-district collaboration: Curriculum and professional development. TESOL Journal Special Issue: Teacher Collaboration in TESOL (2012): Volume 3, Issue 3, pages 402–424.

Short, D., J. Echevarria, and C. Richards-Tutor. Research on academic literacy development in sheltered instruction classrooms. Language Teaching Research (2011): 15(3), 363-380

Short, D., C. Fidelman, and M. Louguit. Developing academic language in English language learners through sheltered instruction. TESOL Quarterly (2012): 46(2), 333-360.

Vogt, ME. English learners: Developing their literate lives. In R. M. Bean & A. S. Dagen (Eds.), Best practice of literacy leaders: Keys to school improvement (2012): 248-260. New York: The Guilford Press.

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Got a Question? We’ve Got the Answer.

Who can implement the SIOP® Model?

Pre-K, elementary, and secondary subject area teachers, reading/language arts and English teachers, resource teachers, coaches, specialists, special educators, community college, and university professors can and do implement the SIOP® Model. It may be part of a general education program, an ELL program, a late-exit bilingual program, a dual-language/two-way bilingual immersion program, a newcomer program, a sheltered program, or even a foreign language immersion program.

Is the SIOP® Model only for English learners?

No. The SIOP® Model has also been validated with native English speaking students, both general education and special education students, and former English learners. When teachers implement the thirty features consistently, all subgroups of students, including students receiving special education services, demonstrate academic gains.

What if I have students who can't speak any English? Will SIOP® help?

It will certainly help, but it's not enough. Beginning speakers, or newcomers, need intensive English instruction provided by an ELL or ELD teacher, in addition to effective SIOP® instruction the rest of the day. If newcomer programs are not available, SIOP® instruction provides students with the best opportunity to comprehend lessons.

Who should receive professional development with the SIOP® Model?

Anyone who will be working with English learners, including teachers, support personnel, instructional assistants, and administrators.

In addition, an overview of the SIOP® Model is beneficial for School Board members and district-level administrators, so everyone is starting on the "same page" with the same ultimate goal.

Is the SIOP® Model compatible with the Common Core State Standards?

Yes. The Common Core State Standards can be used to guide content and language objectives in English language arts and mathematics. The fact that the Common Core State Standards include listening and speaking standards, when a number of state English language arts standards do not, is beneficial to teachers working with English learners.