Table of Contents

PART 1 Foundations of Environmental Science 1

  1. Science and Sustainability: An Introduction to Environmental Science 2
  2. Earth’s Physical Systems: Matter, Energy, and Geology 20
  3. Evolution, Biodiversity, and Population Ecology 46
  4. Species Interactions and Community Ecology 72
  5. Environmental Systems and Ecosystem Ecology 102
  6. Ethics, Economics, and Sustainable Development 130
  7. Environmental Policy: Making Decisions and Solving Problems 158

PART 2 Environmental Issues and the Search for Solutions 183

  1. Human Population 184
  2. The Underpinnings of Agriculture 208
  3. Making Agriculture Sustainable 234
  4. Biodiversity and Conservation Biology 268
  5. Forests, Forest Management, and Protected Areas 300
  6. The Urban Environment: Creating Sustainable Cities 330
  7. Environmental Health and Toxicology 352
  8. Freshwater Systems and Resources 382
  9. Marine and Coastal Systems and Resources 414
  10. The Atmosphere, Air Quality, and Pollution Control 444
  11. Global Climate Change 478
  12. Fossil Fuels: Sources, Uses, Impacts, and Conservation 514
  13. Conventional Energy Alternatives 548
  14. New Renewable Energy Alternatives 576
  15. Managing Our Waste 604
  16. Minerals and Mining 628
  17. Sustainable Solutions 648

Appendix A: Answers to Data Analysis Questions A-1
Appendix B: How to Interpret Graphs B-1
Appendix C: Metric System C-1
Appendix D: Periodic Table of the Elements D-1
Appendix E: Geologic Time Scale E-1
Glossary G-1
Credits CR-1
Selected Sources and References for Further Reading R-1
Index I-1