Table of Contents

  1. Evolution, the Themes of Biology, and Scientific Inquiry 2

Unit 1 T he Chemistry of Life 27

  1. The Chemical Context of Life 28
  2. Water and Life 44
  3. Carbon and the Molecular Diversity of Life 56
  4. The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules 66

Unit 2 T he Cell 92

  1. A Tour of the Cell 93
  2. Membrane Structure and Function 126
  3. An Introduction to Metabolism 143
  4. Cellular Respiration and Fermentation 164
  5. Photosynthesis 187
  6. Cell Communication 212
  7. The Cell Cycle 234

Unit 3 Genetics 253

  1. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 254
  2. Mendel and the Gene Idea 269
  3. The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 294
  4. The Molecular Basis of Inheritance 314
  5. Gene Expression: From Gene to Protein 335
  6. Regulation of Gene Expression 363
  7. Viruses 396
  8. DNA Tools and Biotechnology 413
  9. Genomes and Their Evolution 440

Unit 4 Me chanisms of Evolution 465

  1. Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life 466
  2. The Evolution of Populations 484
  3. The Origin of Species 504
  4. The History of Life on Earth 523

Unit 5 T he Evolutionary History of Biological Diversity 550

  1. Phylogeny and the Tree of Life 551
  2. Bacteria and Archaea 571
  3. Protists 591
  4. Plant Diversity I: How Plants Colonized Land 616
  5. Plant Diversity II: The Evolution of Seed Plants 634
  6. Fungi 652
  7. An Overview of Animal Diversity 671
  8. An Introduction to Invertebrates 684
  9. The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates 716

Unit 6 Plant Form and Function 755

  1. Vascular Plant Structure, Growth, and Development 756
  2. Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants 782
  3. Soil and Plant Nutrition 803
  4. Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology 820
  5. Plant Responses to Internal and External Signals 840

Unit 7 A nimal Form and Function 870

  1. Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function 871
  2. Animal Nutrition 896
  3. Circulation and Gas Exchange 919
  4. The Immune System 950
  5. Osmoregulation and Excretion 975
  6. Hormones and the Endocrine System 997
  7. Animal Reproduction 1017
  8. Animal Development 1041
  9. Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling 1065
  10. Nervous Systems 1083
  11. Sensory and Motor Mechanisms 1105
  12. Animal Behavior 1137

Unit 8 Ecology 1161

  1. An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere 1162
  2. Population Ecology 1188
  3. Community Ecology 1212
  4. Ecosystems and Restoration Ecology 1236
  5. Conservation Biology and Global Change 1258