Table of Contents

1 Chemistry in Our Lives

1.1 Chemistry and Chemicals

1.2 Scientific Method: Thinking Like a Scientist

1.3 Studying and Learning Chemistry

1.4 Key Math Skills for Chemistry

1.5 Writing Numbers in Scientific Notation

 

2 Chemistry and Measurements

2.1 Units of Measurement

2.2 Measured Numbers and Significant Figures

2.3 Significant Figures in Calculations

2.4 Prefixes and Equalities

2.5 Writing Conversion Factors

2.6 Problem Solving Using Unit Conversion

2.7 Density

 

3 Matter and Energy

3.1 Classification of Matter

3.2 States and Properties of Matter

3.3 Temperature

3.4 Energy

3.5 Specific Heat

3.6 Energy and Nutrition

 

4 Atoms and Elements

4.1 Elements and Symbols

4.2 The Periodic Table

4.3 The Atom

4.4 Atomic Number and Mass Number

4.5 Isotopes and Atomic Mass

 

5 Electronic Structure of Atoms and Periodic Trends

5.1 Electromagnetic Radiation

5.2 Atomic Spectra and Energy Levels

5.3 Sublevels and Orbitals

5.4 Orbital Diagrams and Electron Configurations

5.5 Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table

5.6 Trends in Periodic Properties

 

6 Ionic and Molecular Compounds

6.1 Ions: Transfer of Electrons

6.2 Ionic Compounds

6.3 Naming and Writing Ionic Formulas 

6.4 Polyatomic Ions

6.5 Molecular Compounds: Sharing Electrons

 

7 Chemical Quantities

7.1 The Mole

7.2 Molar Mass

7.3 Calculations Using Molar Mass

7.4 Mass Percent Composition

7.5 Empirical Formulas

7.6 Molecular Formulas

 

8 Chemical Reactions

8.1 Equations for Chemical Reactions

8.2 Balancing a Chemical Equation

8.3 Types of Chemical Reactions

8.4 Oxidation—Reduction Reactions

 

9 Chemical Quantities in Reactions

9.1 Conservation of Mass

9.2 Mole Relationships in Chemical Equations

9.3 Mass Calculations for Chemical Reactions

9.4 Limiting Reactants

9.5 Percent Yield

9.6 Energy in Chemical Reactions

 

10 Bonding and Properties of Solids and Liquids

10.1 Lewis Structures for Molecules and Polyatomic Ions

10.2 Resonance Structures

10.3 Shapes of Molecules and Polyatomic Ions (VSEPR Theory)

10.4 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity

10.5 Polarity of Molecules

10.6 Intermolecular Forces Between Atoms or Molecules

10.7 Changes of State

 

11 Gases

11.1 Properties of Gases

11.2 Pressure and Volume (Boyle’s Law)

11.3 Temperature and Volume (Charles’s Law)

11.4 Temperature and Pressure (Gay-Lussac’s Law)

11.5 The Combined Gas Law

11.6 Volume and Moles (Avogadro’s Law)

11.7 The Ideal Gas Law

11.8 Gas Laws and Chemical Reactions

11.9 Partial Pressures (Dalton’s Law)

  

12 Solutions

12.1 Solutions

12.2 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes

12.3 Solubility

12.4 Solution Concentrations

12.5 Dilution of Solutions

12.6 Chemical Reactions in Solution

12.7 Molality and Freezing Point Lowering/Boiling Point Elevation

12.8 Properties of Solutions: Osmosis

 

13 Reaction Rates and Chemical Equilibrium

13.1 Rates of Reactions

13.2 Chemical Equilibrium

13.3 Equilibrium Constants

13.4 Using Equilibrium Constants

13.5 Changing Equilibrium Conditions: Le Châtelier’s Principle

 

14 Acids and Bases

14.1 Acids and Bases

14.2 Brønsted—Lowry Acids and Bases

14.3 Strengths of Acids and Bases

14.4 Dissociation Constants of Weak Acids and Bases

14.5 Dissociation of Water

14.6 The pH Scale

14.7 Reactions of Acids and Bases

14.8 Acid—Base Titration

14.9 Buffers

 

15 Oxidation and Reduction

15.1 Oxidation and Reduction

15.2 Balancing Oxidation—Reduction Equations Using Half-Reactions

15.3 Electrical Energy from Oxidation—Reduction Reactions

15.4 Oxidation—Reduction Reactions That Require Electrical Energy

 

16 Nuclear Chemistry

16.1 Natural Radioactivity

16.2 Nuclear Reactions

16.3 Radiation Measurement

16.4 Half-Life of a Radioisotope

16.5 Medical Applications Using Radioactivity

16.6 Nuclear Fission and Fusion

 

17 Organic Chemistry

17.1 Alkanes

17.2 Alkenes, Alkynes, and Polymers

17.3 Aromatic Compounds

17.4 Alcohols and Ethers

17.5 Aldehydes and Ketones

17.6 Carboxylic Acids and Esters

17.7 Amines and Amides

 

18 Biochemistry

18.1 Carbohydrates

18.2 Disaccharides and Polysaccharides

18.3 Lipids

18.4 Amino Acids and Proteins

18.5 Protein Structure

18.6 Proteins as Enzymes

18.7 Nucleic Acids

18.8 Protein Synthesis